Some of the famous Anasazi Culture found in NV, AZ, Colorado and New Mexico.
Many of the features of this society are similar to other tribes in the Southwest however the Fremont Culture has more similarities to other Anasazi groups than other pre-historic populations of the Great Southwest.
Among the tribes that lived along the Grand Canyon, Walnut Creek Canyon and other village sites of Pueblo peoples in the Wupatki area east of and north of present day Flagstaff, AZ, were many with habits and farming and probably religious customs similar to the Fremont Culture in Utah.. These were the farming, hunter gatherers that lived in pueblo style housing in valleys or on mesa tops and then toward the end of the culture, they engineered cliff dwellings for protection from warring neighbors. The Anasazi ruins (abandoned villages) are found in Nevada from the Virgin River to Red Rock Canyon, through Colorado at Mesa Verde to many areas of Arizona and even to the Rio Grande River Valley in New Mexico and Texas. The big mystery is how and why did this culture vanish in abut 1300 BC.
The move from pueblo style housing on the mesas and on top of the Cliffs near the agriculture patches to the defensive Cliff Dwelling often found in later ruins may represent drought created food shortages, religious difference between groups and inter-tribal was among neighbors. There is currently a great deal of research on this issues at several universities and among archaeologists who work for State and Federal Parks in the Southwest Region.
The petroglyphs of the Fremont culture are slightly different than most Anasazi rock art from sites in Arizona and Nevada. The crops raised were: maize (corn), beans, pumpkins and cotton. The villages raised their own turkeys and hunted for deer, bighorn sheep, rabbits and many kinds of small “critters”. The remains of these food items are found during excavations of hunting camps and villages. Cultivated crops were irrigated when sufficient water was available. Village sites were usually located where water and game were easily found. During the last centuries of this culture that had existed in the Southwest for over 1200 years, the ag fields were either above the cliff dwellings or on the valley floor below the protective village site.
Travel to the fields to work the crops and carrying water were certainly inconvenient for the residents and imply to me that it was very important to survival to be living in cliff dwellings on this steep slopes accessible only by ladders or hand and foot holds chiseled into the cliff face.
Research studies lead us to believe that drought, war and other conditions encouraged the Anasazi to move to areas not as impacted by the conditions and to join or create their villages where we find historic and modern day Pueblo peoples living today. Many experts refer to Anasazi cultures as Ancient Puebloans and this term is used widely to help explain about the disappearance of those peoples who lived in the Grand Canyon, Wupatki and even other sites in Arizona, Colorado, New Mexico and Nevada. The upshot is that the Anasazi did not become extinct or disappear but evolved into tribes living in more compatible surroundings.